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《改革开放40年中国人权事业的发展进步》白皮书(9)(中英对照)

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VIII. Path of Human Rights Protection Suited to National Conditions

八、成功走出符合国情的人权发展道路
Over the past four decades of reform and opening-up, China has made significant progress in human rights, creating a new path of human rights protection based on China's history and national conditions, and the successful experiences of other countries. This path is the result of the Chinese people's experimentation in practice and theoretical innovation led by the CPC, and embodies the essence of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
改革开放40年中国人权事业取得巨大成就,成功走出了一条符合本国国情的人权发展道路。这条道路源于中国历史,植根中国现实,借鉴各国经验,是中国共产党带领人民通过接续不断的实践创新和理论探索形成的,反映了中国特色社会主义的本质要求。
Human rights protection centered on the people. People are the fundamental driving force of history. People-centered development toward a better life was the original aspiration and remains the distinct goal of China's reform and opening-up. To realize this aspiration, the state respects the people's principal position in the country, safeguards their political rights, expands orderly political participation in all fields at all levels, and ensures the people's rights to equal participation and equal development. Furthermore, the state takes the people's wellbeing and common prosperity as its ultimate goal, enables the people to be the main contributors, promoters, and beneficiaries of development, and works to fulfill their aspirations for a better education, more stable jobs, higher incomes, more reliable social security, better medical and health care, improved housing conditions, and a beautiful environment, advancing the all-round development of the people. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC has given prominence to the principle of people-centered development by putting the interests of the people above all else, focusing its efforts on their aspiration for a better life, and enhancing the protection of all basic human rights. The CPC and the Chinese government plan reform policies and set reform measures in the interests of the people, and always make sure that reform responds to public demand. China's national rejuvenation represents a process of promoting social fairness and justice, advancing human rights, realizing, safeguarding, and developing the fundamental interests of the people, ensuring that the fruits of development better benefit all the people in a fair way, and enabling every person to enjoy self-development and serve society with dignity.
坚持以人民为中心,让老百姓过上好日子,是中国改革开放的初心和鲜明价值取向。尊重人民主体地位,保障人民政治权利,从各层次各领域扩大人民有序政治参与,保证人民平等参与、平等发展权利;把增进人民福祉,朝着共同富裕方向稳步前进作为发展的出发点和落脚点,使人民成为发展的主要参与者、促进者和受益者,让人民有更好的教育、更稳定的工作、更满意的收入、更可靠的社会保障、更高水平的医疗服务、更舒适的居住条件、更优美的环境,促进人的全面发展。中共十八大以来,中国共产党明确提出以人民为中心的发展思想,始终把人民利益摆在至高无上的地位,把人民对美好生活的向往作为奋斗目标,不断提高尊重与保障人民各项基本权利的水平。中国共产党和中国政府从人民利益出发,谋划改革思路、制定改革举措,人民关心什么、期盼什么,改革就抓住什么、推进什么,人民有所呼、改革有所应。中国人民实现中华民族伟大复兴中国梦的过程,本质上就是实现社会公平正义和不断推动人权事业发展的进程,实现好、维护好、发展好最广大人民根本利益,使发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民,让每个人都能有尊严地发展自我和奉献社会。
Integration of the principle of universality of human rights with China's national conditions. The universality of human rights is grounded in human dignity and value, and based on common interests and basic moral norms shared by all. There is no universally applicable model for fulfilling human rights, and human rights can only advance in the context of national conditions and people's needs. The CPC and the Chinese government approach human rights from a historical, dialectical and developmental perspective, and take advantage of the strengths of socialism with Chinese characteristics while bearing in mind the overarching condition that China is still and will long remain in the primary stage of socialism, integrating universality with particularity. The central authorities take proactive steps to meet the people's need for development, and advance human rights in a planned and progressive manner.
坚持把人权的普遍性原则同中国实际相结合。人权的普遍性基于人的尊严和价值,也基于人类的共同利益和共同道德。在实现人权的问题上,不可能有放之四海而皆准的模式,人权事业发展必须也只能按照各国国情和人民需要加以推进。中国共产党和中国政府始终坚持历史、辩证、发展地看待人权问题,基于中国特色社会主义这一制度优势,牢牢立足中国处于并将长期处于社会主义初级阶段这个最大的国情和最大的实际,坚持普遍性与特殊性相统一,主动适应人民的发展要求,始终致力于有计划、有步骤、分阶段地促进人权事业发展进步。
Primary focus on the rights to subsistence and development. From the mid-19th century, China suffered repeated foreign aggression and fell to the status of a poor and weak country. The experience of numerous hardships taught the Chinese people that the rights to subsistence and development are the primary rights – the preconditions and the foundation for all other human rights. A process of self-actualization for individuals, development is a means to eliminate poverty and paves the way for realizing other human rights. Taking development as its top priority, China is committed to liberating and developing the country's productive forces and eliminating poverty. The country has achieved outstanding economic success and realized the historic leaps from poverty to secure access to food and clothing, and thence to moderate prosperity. In the light of its national conditions, China pursues innovative, coordinated, green, open and inclusive development, highlights balance and sustainability, and promotes harmonybetween urban and rural areas, between regions, between the economy and society, and between humanity and nature to lay a solid foundation for fulfilling and protecting the right to development.
坚持把生存权和发展权作为首要的基本人权。近代中国,长期遭受外来侵略,积贫积弱。从苦难中一路走来的中国人民深刻认识到,生存权和发展权是首要的基本人权,是享有其他人权的前提和基础。发展既是消除贫困的手段,也为实现其他人权提供了条件,同时还是人实现自身潜能的过程。中国始终把发展作为第一要务,不断解放和发展生产力,致力于消除贫困,创造了经济增长的世界奇迹,实现了人民生活从贫困到温饱再到小康的历史性跨越。中国从实际出发,遵循创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念,遵循平衡性、可持续性的发展思路,将城乡、区域、经济与社会及人与自然之间的和谐发展作为实现和保障发展权的坚实基础。
Coordinated progress in all human rights as a major principle for human rights protection. Over the past 40 years, adhering to the principle of interdependence and inalienability of all human rights, China has coordinated the planning and promotion of all rights and endeavored to strike a balance between economic, social and cultural rights and civil and political rights, and between individual rights and collective rights. Moving toward the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation set out by the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC has advanced the overall plan of seeking economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress, and made comprehensive moves to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, to extend reform, to advance the rule of law, and to strengthen Party discipline. In this way, China has made comprehensive progress in human rights through an integrated approach.
坚持把全面协调推进各项权利作为保障人权的重要原则。改革开放40年来,中国人权事业发展坚持各项权利相互依赖与不可分割的原则,对各项权利的发展进行统筹协调、统一部署、均衡促进,切实推动经济、社会、文化权利和公民权利、政治权利的平衡发展,促进个人人权和集体人权的协调发展。中共十八大以来,中国共产党提出实现中华民族伟大复兴中国梦,统筹推进经济、政治、文化、社会和生态文明建设“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党“四个全面”战略布局,推进了中国人权事业的全面发展,体现了人权的整体性发展思想。
Institutional guarantee of human rights under the rule of law. The rule of law is a symbol of human progress and an important guarantee of human rights. China has made rule of law the fundamental strategy for governing the country and worked to build a socialist country under the rule of law. The state enhances comprehensive protection of human rights under the rule of law, ensures that the people enjoy their rights and freedoms to a fuller extent, and strives to realize social fairness and justice, in an effort to bring about the all-round development of individuals and comprehensive progress of society. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC and the Chinese government have made comprehensive moves to advance the rule of law, taking a holistic approach to building a country, a government and a society where the rule of law applies. The central authorities have given greater prominence to respecting and protecting human rights in building a socialist country under the rule of law, and placed human rights under the full protection of the rule of law through strengthening legislation, law enforcement, administration of justice, and observance of law.
坚持把依法治国作为人权发展的制度保障。法治是人类文明进步的标志,也是人权得以实现的重要保障。中国坚持依法治国基本方略,努力建设社会主义法治国家,全方位提升人权法治化保障水平,保证人民依法享有更加充分的权利和自由,努力实现社会公平正义,更好推动人的全面发展、社会全面进步。中共十八大以来,党和政府全面推进依法治国,坚持法治国家、法治政府、法治社会一体建设,将尊重和保障人权置于社会主义法治国家建设更加突出的位置,将人权保障贯穿于科学立法、严格执法、公正司法和全民守法等各个环节,真正让法治的阳光照亮每一个角落。
A global community of shared future as a way to improve global human rights governance. China is a supporter, practitioner and promoter of the sound development of the international human rights cause. Since reform and opening-up, China has pursued common development across the world, aiming for a better life for the Chinese people and the peoples of other countries. China has developed rapidly by taking advantage of opportunities created by a peaceful international environment. It has in turn upheld and promoted world peace and common propensity through its own development, and made an outstanding contribution to the cause of international human rights. China calls for inclusiveness, exchanges, and mutual learning between cultures and between countries to advance human rights together. International human rights issues should be resolved through consultation. Building a global human rights governance system needs the participation of all countries, and progress in human rights benefits all peoples in the world. All member states have the responsibility to abide by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, uphold the principle of sovereign equality, and engage in human rights exchanges and cooperation in a constructive way. China conducts extensive and in-depth cooperation on international human rights, and promotes a fair and equitable global system for human rights governance by working together with other countries to build a global community of shared future.
坚持把构建人类命运共同体作为推动全球人权治理的使命担当。中国一直是国际人权事业健康发展的倡导者、践行者和推动者。改革开放以来,中国始终追求世界共同发展,坚持“既要让自己过得好,也要让别人过得好”。中国利用世界和平发展带来的机遇发展自己,又以自身的发展更好地维护世界和平、促进共同发展,为全球人权事业作出了突出贡献。中国主张不同文明、不同国家之间相互包容、相互交流、相互借鉴,共同推进人权发展。国际人权事务应由各国共同商量,全球人权治理体系要由各国共同建设,人权发展成果要由各国人民共同分享。各方应该始终恪守《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则,坚持主权平等原则,建设性地开展人权交流与合作。中国全面深入参与国际人权合作,推动建立公正合理的国际人权治理体系,努力与各国一道构建人类命运共同体。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
productive [prə'dʌktiv]

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adj. 能生产的,有生产价值的,多产的

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单词productive 联想记忆:
pro向前+duct引导,带来+ive→生产的;多产的
 
cooperation [kəu.ɔpə'reiʃən]

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n. 合作,协作

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单词cooperation 联想记忆:
co共同,operation(n 操作)
 
environment [in'vaiərənmənt]

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n. 环境,外界

 
extend [iks'tend]

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v. 扩充,延伸,伸展,扩展

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单词extend 联想记忆:
ex出,tend伸-伸出-延长;扩大
 
guarantee [.gærən'ti:]

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n. 保证,保证书,担保,担保人,抵押品
vt

 
experimentation [ik.sperimen'teiʃn]

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n. 实验,试验

 
fairness ['fɛənis]

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n. 公平,公正

 
rural ['ru:rəl]

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adj. 农村的

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单词rural 联想记忆:
rur乡村+al表形容词,“…的”→乡村的
 
innovation [.inəu'veiʃən]

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n. 创新,革新

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单词innovation 联想记忆:
novation(n 更新);novel(n 小说adj 新奇的;新颖的)
 
constructive [kən'strʌktiv]

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adj. 建设性的,构造上的,作图的

 


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