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2018年政府工作报告(3)(中英对照)

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Third, with a commitment to innovation-driven development, and a focus on unlocking public creativity, we have achieved a remarkable improvement in our general capacity for making innovations and for seeing that innovation delivers. We have put into action the innovation-driven development strategy and worked to build a better ecosystem for innovation, giving shape to innovation involving multiple actors making across-the-board advances. Research institutes and universities now have greater say over their research; research projects and funding are better managed, and the way of managing rights and interests relating to scientific and technological advances has undergone reform.

(三)坚持创新引领发展,着力激发社会创造力,整体创新能力和效率显著提高。实施创新驱动发展战略,优化创新生态,形成多主体协同、全方位推进的创新局面。扩大科研机构和高校科研自主权,改进科研项目和经费管理,深化科技成果权益管理改革。
We have supported Beijing and Shanghai in building themselves into centers for scientific and technological innovation, and set up 14 new national innovation demonstration zones, thus creating a number of regional innovation hubs. With enterprises as the main actors, we have boosted the development of a system for technological innovation. China has seen the emergence of a number of world-class innovative enterprises and new-type R&D institutions. We have launched and taken bold moves in the nationwide business startup and innovation initiative, adopted support policies designed to benefit all entrepreneurs and innovators, and improved the incubation system. China's market entities, all types included, now total over 98 million, an increase of more than 70 percent over the past five years. The number of in-force Chinese invention patents issued in China has tripled, and the volume of technology transactions has doubled. In the global race of scientific and technological innovation, China has shifted place, from following others to keeping pace and even leading the pack in more and more areas. Our country has become a globally recognized fertile ground for innovation and business ventures.
支持北京、上海建设科技创新中心,新设14个国家自主创新示范区,带动形成一批区域创新高地。以企业为主体加强技术创新体系建设,涌现一批具有国际竞争力的创新型企业和新型研发机构。深入开展大众创业、万众创新,实施普惠性支持政策,完善孵化体系。各类市场主体达到9800多万户,五年增加70%以上。国内有效发明专利拥有量增加两倍,技术交易额翻了一番。我国科技创新由跟跑为主转向更多领域并跑、领跑,成为全球瞩目的创新创业热土。
Fourth, with a commitment to deepening reform across the board, we have taken major steps to remove institutional barriers, thus steadily boosting the driving forces powering development. Solid progress has been made in the reform of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and state assets; the reform to convert SOEs into standard companies has now basically been completed; and efforts to merge and restructure, reduce the organizational levels in, and improve the quality and efficiency of SOEs have made good progress. The performance of SOEs has been much improved, with profits last year growing by 23.5 percent. We have deepened reform in sectors like energy, rail, and the salt industry.
(四)坚持全面深化改革,着力破除体制机制弊端,发展动力不断增强。国企国资改革扎实推进,公司制改革基本完成,兼并重组、压减层级、提质增效取得积极进展。国有企业效益明显好转,去年利润增长23.5%。深化能源、铁路、盐业等领域改革。
Market access to the non-public sector has been expanded. An integrated registration system for immovable property has been put in place, and the property rights protection system has been improved. Fiscal and tax reforms have made major progress. We have introduced the requirement nationwide for government budgets and final accounts to be released to the public, developed a system based mainly on tax sharing for dividing revenue between central and local government, launched the reform to define the respective financial powers and expenditure responsibilities of central and local government, and significantly scaled up general transfer payments from central to local government, while also cutting by two thirds the number of items for which special purpose transfer payments are made. We have largely lifted controls on interest rates, established a deposit insurance system, encouraged large and medium commercial banks to set up inclusive finance divisions, deepened the reform of policy-backed and development financial institutions, and strengthened the mechanisms for coordinating financial regulation.
放宽非公有制经济市场准入。建立不动产统一登记制度。完善产权保护制度。财税改革取得重大进展,全面推行财政预决算公开,构建以共享税为主的中央和地方收入分配格局,启动中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革,中央对地方一般性转移支付规模大幅增加、专项转移支付项目减少三分之二。基本放开利率管制,建立存款保险制度,推动大中型商业银行设立普惠金融事业部,深化政策性、开发性金融机构改革,强化金融监管协调机制。
We have improved the mechanisms for promoting more balanced development of urban and rural compulsory education, and reformed the examination and enrollment systems. We have established unified basic pension and health insurance schemes for rural and non-working urban residents, and brought government office and public institution pension schemes into line with enterprise schemes. We have unveiled a plan for appropriating a share of state capital to replenish social security funds. We have carried out coordinated medical service, medical insurance, and pharmaceutical reforms. We have introduced a comprehensive reform in all public hospitals, rescinded the policy, long in effect, of allowing hospitals to profit from higher priced medicine, and made breakthroughs in the reform of approval systems for medicine and medical devices.
完善城乡义务教育均衡发展促进机制,改革考试招生制度。建立统一的城乡居民基本养老、医疗保险制度,实现机关事业单位和企业养老保险制度并轨。出台划转部分国有资本充实社保基金方案。实施医疗、医保、医药联动改革,全面推开公立医院综合改革,取消长期实行的药品加成政策,药品医疗器械审批制度改革取得突破。
We have pursued reform to separate rural land ownership rights, contract rights, and use rights, and already seen that over 80 percent of contracted rural land covered by this reform. We have reformed the system for purchasing and stockpiling important agricultural products. We have improved the functional zoning system, established performance evaluation and accountability systems for ecological conservation, and instituted the river chief and lake chief systems. We have piloted a system placing government environmental offices below the provincial level directly under the supervision of provincial-level environmental offices. The deepening of reform in each and every field has given a boost to sustained, healthy economic and social development.
推进农村承包地“三权”分置改革、确权面积超过80%,改革重要农产品收储制度。完善主体功能区制度,建立生态文明绩效考评和责任追究制度,推行河长制、湖长制,开展省级以下环保机构垂直管理制度改革试点。各领域改革的深化,推动了经济社会持续健康发展。
Fifth, with a commitment to China's fundamental policy of opening-up, we have focused on promoting win-win cooperation, and significantly improved the performance of our country's open economy. We have launched and worked with other countries in the Belt and Road Initiative. We initiated the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, set up the Silk Road Fund, and launched a number of major connectivity and economic and trade cooperation initiatives.
(五)坚持对外开放的基本国策,着力实现合作共赢,开放型经济水平显著提升。倡导和推动共建“一带一路”,发起创办亚投行,设立丝路基金,一批重大互联互通、经贸合作项目落地。
Beginning with the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone, we have established 11 pilot free trade zones. A number of successful outcomes from pilot reforms are now being applied nationwide. We have reformed the cost-sharing mechanism for export tax rebates, and the central government now pays the full sum of increases in export tax rebates. We have set up 13 comprehensive experimental zones for cross-border e-commerce. Single-window document processing for international trade has been applied nationwide, cutting the average time for customs clearance by over half. Imports and exports have rebounded and steadily grown.
设立上海等11个自贸试验区,一批改革试点成果向全国。改革出口退税负担机制、退税增量全部由中央财政负担,设立13个跨境电商综合试验区,国际贸易“单一窗口”覆盖全国,货物通关时间平均缩短一半以上,进出口实现回稳向好。
For foreign investment, we have replaced the approval system with a negative list model, and have cut restrictions by two thirds. The composition of foreign investment has improved, with investment in high-tech industries doubling. We have intensified efforts to attract talent, and the number of foreign experts working in China has grown by 40 percent. We have guided the healthy development of outbound investment. We have moved forward with international cooperation on production capacity; high-speed rail, nuclear power, and other types of Chinese equipment have entered international markets. We have signed or upgraded eight free trade agreements. We have launched the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect, the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect, and the Bond Connect. The RMB was included in the IMF's Special Drawing Rights basket, representing a major step forward in its internationalization. China has opened its doors wider to the world. This opening has played a powerful role in our own development, and it presents important opportunities for the rest of the world.
外商投资由审批制转向负面清单管理,限制性措施削减三分之二。外商投资结构优化,高技术产业占比提高一倍。加大引智力度,来华工作的外国专家增加40%。引导对外投资健康发展。推进国际产能合作,高铁、核电等装备走向世界。新签和升级8个自由贸易协定。沪港通、深港通、债券通相继启动,人民币加入国际货币基金组织特别提款权货币篮子,人民币国际化迈出重要步伐。中国开放的扩大,有力促进了自身发展,给世界带来重大机遇。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
define [di'fain]

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v. 定义,解释,限定,规定

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单词define 联想记忆:
de加强+fine限制→加强限制→限定;下定义
 
supervision [.sju:pə'viʒən]

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n. 监督,管理

 
creativity [.kri:ei'tiviti]

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n. 创造力,创造

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单词creativity 联想记忆:
create创造+ivity表名词,由-ive+ity组成,“有…能力或特性”→创造力
 
sustained [səs'teind]

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adj. 持久的,经久不衰的

 
transfer [træns'fə:]

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n. 迁移,移动,换车
v. 转移,调转,调任

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单词transfer 联想记忆:
trans交换+fer带来,拿来→交换带走→转送,转移
 
bold [bəuld]

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adj. 大胆的,粗体的,醒目的,无礼的,陡峭的

 
fundamental [.fʌndə'mentl]

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adj. 基本的,根本的,重要的
n. 基本原

 
demonstration [.demən'streiʃən]

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n. 示范,实证,表达,集会

 
medium ['mi:diəm]

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n. 媒体,方法,媒介
adj. 适中的,中等

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单词medium 联想记忆:
med中间+ium→中间物,媒介→媒介物
 
accountability [ə,kauntə'biləti]

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n. 可说明性;有义务;有责任

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单词accountability 联想记忆:
accountable(adj 应负责任的;有责任的)
 

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