Read this leaflet about the Nobel Prize.
Alfred Nobel was an inventor born in Sweden.
When he died in 1896, he left a lot of money and property.
This was then worth about nine million U.S. dollars, and later became the original source of the world-famous Nobel Prize.
Nobel believed that the spread of knowledge would make the world a better place.
The yearly-awarded prizes are given to honour those who help mankind.
Nobel said that the prizes should honour 'the most important discoveries or inventions' in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine and 'the most outstanding works' in literature.
Since 1901, the Nobel Prize has been presented to the winners on 10 December, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death.
At the award ceremony in the Stockholm Concert Hall, the King of Sweden hands each winner a diploma and a medal.
The ceremony is followed by a large banquet for about 1,300 people.
Among the guests of honour are the Nobel Prize winners and their families, the King and the Queen, and many well-known leaders in science and culture.
Two hundred and fifty young students are also honoured with invitations to this grand occasion.