手机APP下载

您现在的位置: 首页 > 在线广播 > 科学美国人 > 科学美国人心理系列 > 正文

科学美国人60秒:疼痛预期会影响疼痛体验

来源:可可英语 编辑:aimee   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
 下载MP3到电脑  批量下载MP3和LRC到手机
加载中..
0B3zT@^P-*e[ku)OVX^

7f;rZCi0.q3

This is Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.
Getting a vaccine can be a painful experience, especially when you're a kid. But getting told the shot might "hurt a bit" could actually make it worse.
"We know that expectation affects pain experience in adults. But we don't really know whether this is also true for children."
Kalina Michalska, a developmental neuroscientist at the University of California, Riverside. She led a study to find out.
The study included 25 adults and 48 children. And 27 of the kids had a pre-existing anxiety disorder. Because medical procedures make pretty much all kids anxious...and those who are anxious to start with tend to find the experience even more painful.
The researchers used a handheld wand to apply heat to the forearm of each participant. And they asked subjects to rate the temperature in terms of discomfort. The hottest setting was about the temperature of very warm tap water—uncomfortable, perhaps, but not damaging.
"But during the experiment, we were most interested in only one temperature: the one that each subject rated as medium."
That's where the "anticipation" part of the experiment comes in. Subjects were played one of two tones.
"One tone meant that low heat was coming; the other meant that high heat was upcoming."

I4A!(^Hv,^zy|O

接种疫苗1.jpg
But here's the sneaky part. No matter what tone was played, participants got the same heat applied—the one rated as "medium."
"So even though the subject heard a cue indicating high pain or low pain, the pain was only medium."
Or at least that's how it should have felt. But what happened was that subjects reported feeling what they thought they would.
"If we tell them through this tone that they're going to experience a lot of pain, they'll actually experience more pain: they rated the pain as higher. And conversely, if we tell them that they will experience only low pain, they also rate their experiences as less painful."
"This is really important because it kind of reinforces the necessity of not hyping up painful experiences. And also discouraging children from ramping up the experience in their head."
And the same, it seems, goes for the grownups.
"One aspect surprised us, was that all three groups experienced a similar relationship between pain expectation and pain experience. We expected the strongest correlation among anxious children. But however all three groups showed a very large effect of expectancy on their experience of pain."
The research is in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine.
Next up, Michalska says she'd like to examine whether negative associations can be unlearned. So next time you need a shot, remember: if you think it won't be so bad, maybe it won't be.
Thanks for listening for Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

ss,c;i*#a0.

y2FnKxO;(1~L

QUYRIea@EpTL(H+sC_RvNDbf]-E))[c4F+lJ;TQ8G]qpqp!

重点单词   查看全部解释    
uncomfortable [ʌn'kʌmftəbl]

想一想再看

adj. 不舒服的,不自在的

 
disorder [dis'ɔ:də]

想一想再看

n. 杂乱,混乱
vt. 扰乱

联想记忆
X
单词disorder 联想记忆:
dis不,消失掉+order顺序→没有顺序→无秩序
 
understand [.ʌndə'stænd]

想一想再看

vt. 理解,懂,听说,获悉,将 ... 理解为,认为<

 
vaccine ['væksi:n]

想一想再看

n. 疫苗

 
anticipation [æn.tisi'peiʃən]

想一想再看

n. 预期,预料

 
tone [təun]

想一想再看

n. 音调,语气,品质,调子,色调
vt. 使

 
experienced [iks'piəriənst]

想一想再看

adj. 有经验的

 
setting ['setiŋ]

想一想再看

n. 安装,放置,周围,环境,(为诗等谱写的)乐曲

 
participant [pɑ:'tisipənt]

想一想再看

n. 参与者

联想记忆
X
单词participant 联想记忆:
participate参加+ant表名词,“…人”→参与者
 
negative ['negətiv]

想一想再看

adj. 否定的,负的,消极的
n. 底片,负

联想记忆
X
单词negative 联想记忆:
negat否认+ive表形容词→否认的
 

发布评论我来说2句

    英语学习推荐

    科学美国人60秒

    可可英语官方微信(微信号:ikekenet)

    每天向大家推送短小精悍的英语学习资料.

    添加方式1.扫描上方可可官方微信二维码。
    添加方式2.搜索微信号ikekenet添加即可。