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万物简史(MP3+中英字幕) 第456期:小生物的世界(27)

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Much about the 1918 flu is understood poorly or not at all. One mystery is how it erupted suddenly, all over, in places separated by oceans, mountain ranges, and other earthly impediments. A virus can survive for no more than a few hours outside a host body, so how could it appear in Madrid, Bombay, and Philadelphia all in the same week?

对于1918年的那场流感,人们了解甚少,或者根本不了解。在由海洋、山脉和其他天然屏障阻隔地许多地方,流感为什么突然到处爆发,这是一个谜。在寄主身体之外,病毒只能存活几个小时,它怎么会同一个星期在马德晨、孟买和费城同时出现?
The probable answer is that it was incubated and spread by people who had only slight symptoms or none at all. Even in normal outbreaks, about 10 percent of people have the flu but are unaware of it because they experience no ill effects. And because they remain in circulation they tend to be the great spreaders of the disease.
答案很可能是,它是由人培养和传播的,他们只有轻微的症状或毫无症状。即使在正常爆发的时刻,在任何特定的人口当中,有大约10%的人患有流感而又学习察觉,因为他们没有不舒服的感觉。由于他们仍在不停流动,他们往往是那种疾病的最主要的传播者。
西班牙大流感

That would account for the 1918 outbreak's widespread distribution, but it still doesn't explain how it managed to lay low for several months before erupting so explosively at more or less the same time all over. Even more mysterious is that it was primarily devastating to people in the prime of life. Flu normally is hardest on infants and the elderly, but in the 1918 outbreak deaths were overwhelmingly among people in their twenties and thirties. Older people may have benefited from resistance gained from an earlier exposure to the same strain, but why the very young were similarly spared is unknown. The greatest mystery of all is why the 1918 flu was so ferociously deadly when most flus are not. We still have no idea.

这可能说明了1918年爆发的广泛性,但这仍不能解释为什么流感能潜伏几个月,然后才差不多同时在世界各地猛烈爆发。它对青壮年的伤害最大,这更是个谜。在通常情况下,孩子和老人是最容易感染流感,但在1918年的爆发中,死者绝大部分是20-40岁的人。老年人也许早先接触过那种疾病,因此受益于已经获得的抵抗力,但为什么少年儿童同样幸免于难,这是个未知数。最大的谜团是,为什么1918年的流感那样致命,而大多数流感却不是那样的。我们仍然搞不明白。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
unknown ['ʌn'nəun]

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adj. 未知的,不出名的

 
survive [sə'vaiv]

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vt. 比 ... 活得长,幸免于难,艰难度过

联想记忆
X
单词survive 联想记忆:
sur下面,vive=live-在下面活着-幸存
 
separated ['sepəreitid]

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adj. 分居;分开的;不在一起生活的 v. 分开;隔开

 
mystery ['mistəri]

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n. 神秘,秘密,奥秘,神秘的人或事物

 
circulation [.sə:kju'leiʃən]

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n. 流通,循环,发行量,消息传播

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X
单词circulation 联想记忆:
circulate圆,环+ion→发生,流通
 
tend [tend]

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v. 趋向,易于,照料,护理

 
virus ['vaiərəs]

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n. 病毒,病原体

 
overwhelmingly [.əvə'welmiŋli]

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adv. 压倒性地,不可抵抗地

 
slight [slait]

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adj. 轻微的,微小的,纤细的,脆弱的
vt

 
devastating ['devəsteitiŋ]

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adj. 毁灭性的,令人震惊的,强有力的

 

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